Deprivarea emotionala

Deprivarea emotionala

Conform lui Young, schema dominantă dezadaptativă a persoanelor cu Tulburare de  Personalitate Histrionică este deprivarea emoţională.

Cel mai des întâlnită schemă în practică psihologică este deprivarea emoţională, deşi de cele mai multe ori pacienţii nu recunosc existenţa ei. Ei vin la terapie cu sentimente de singurătate, amărăciune, depresie, fără să ştie de ce se simt aşa. Au impresia că nu primesc suficientă căldură, atenţie, că nu le poate da nimeni putere; se simt singuri şi neînţeleşi, înşelaţi în dragoste, invizibili sau goi pe dinăuntru.

Aceşti pacienţi nu dezvăluie persoanelor apropiate nevoile lor emoţionale; nu exprimă dorinţa de iubire sau confort; au mereu întrebări pentru ceilalţi dar dezvăluie puţin despre ei înşişi; încearcă să pară mai puternici decât sunt; încurajează chiar deprivarea emoţională adoptând un comportament care transmite că ei nu au nevoi emoţionale. Deoarece aceşti pacienţi nu aşteaptă suport emoţional, nici nu îl cer; în consecinţă, de cele mai multe ori, nici nu îl primesc.

O altă tendinţă care se observă la pacienţii cu schema deprivare emoţională este alegerea persoanelor apropiate din rândul celor care fie nu pot sau nu vreau să ofere emoţional. De cele mai multe ori îşi aleg persoane reci, distante, egoiste, nevoiaşe, care e foarte probabil să-i depriveze emoţional. Alţii, care se feresc, devin singuratici. Evită relaţii intime deoarece, oricum nu se aşteaptă să primească ceva în schimb. Unii ramân în relaţii distante, sau chiar evită total orice relaţie.

Pacienţii cu schema deprivare emoţională au tendinţa să devină foarte neajutoraţi. Unii indivizi exprimă atât de intens foarte multe nevoi încât par să fie neajutoraţi sau histrionici. Pot să aibă foarte multe plângeri, simptome psihosomatice că să obţină atenţia celorlaţi şi grija lor.

Obiectivul major al psihoterapiei este să-i ajutăm pe aceşti pacienţi să devină conştienţi de nevoile lor emoţionale. Pentru ei poate să pară foarte natural faptul că nu le sunt satisfăcute aceste nevoi, astfel încât nici să nu fie conştienţi că ceva e în neregulă.

Un alt obiectiv al ședintelor de psihoterapie este să-i ajutăm să accepte că nevoile lor emoţionale sunt fiereşti şi normale. Psihologul va explica, că orice copil are nevoie de empatie, protecţie, alimentaţie, şi de asemenea şi ca adulţi avem nevoie de  aceste lucruri. Dacă pacienţii învăţă cum să-şi aleagă persoanele care să le devină apropiate şi apoi să le ceară ce au nevoie într-o manieră adecvată, atunci ceilalţi se vor deschide şi vor oferi emoţional. Ceilalţi nu-i deprivează emoţional intenţionat pe aceştia, fie ei aleg acele persoane care nu se pot deschide şi nu pot oferi, fie se comportă astfel încât ceilalţi sunt descurajaţi.

Psiholog Cluj / Psihoterapeut Cluj – Napoca

Cabinet de Psihologie Stela Neamt

Bibliografie:

Jeffrey E. Young, Janet S. Klosko, Marjorie E. Weishaar (2003). Schema Therapy, The Guilford Press, New York, London

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